Biological Activity of Ardraka

 

·   (6) a-Shogaol, one of  the active constituents of Ardraka  (0.5 mg/kg, i.v.) showed triphasic effect on blood pressure in rats, an initial fall followed by marked pressor response, bradycardia and apnea. It induced contractile response in isolated guinea pig trachea at 100.0,uM and showed positive inotropic and chronotropic activities on isolated atria in rats at 3.6 M (Nippon Yakugaku Zasshi 1986,88, 339; Suekawa, Mamoru et.al.,  Nippon Yakurigaku Zasshi, 88(5), 339, (Japanese), 1986; Chem. Abstr 1987, 106, 12347p;  J. Pharmacobio-Dyn. 1986, 9, 842; Suekawa, Mamoru et.al., J. Pharmacobio-Dyn., 9(10), 842, 1986);  gingerols I and II from rhizomes potentiated contractions induced by prostanoids (except PGD2) and inhibited contractions produced by PGD2, TXA2 and LT on isolated blood vessels of mice and rats. Because of their prostaglandin-related chemical structures, gingerols acted as modulator of eicosanoid responses in vascular smooth muscles (Jap. J. Pharmacol 1989, 50, 253)

 

·    An active fraction from acetone extract of ginger significantly inhibited serotonin- induced hypothermia. Acetone extract (75.0 mg/kg) orally also inhibited 5HT-induced diarrhoea; (6)-shogaol, (6)-dehydrogingerdione, (8)- and (10)-gingerols were identified as active constituents of extract (Yakugaku Zasshi, 1990, 110, 936 (Japanese) ; Chem. Abstr.1991, 114, 114876 t); acetone extract showed antimicrobial activity against Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli K-12 (Yamada, Yasumasa, Bokin Bobai, 20(6), 309, 1992);  supplementation of butter in diet of healthy male volunteers for 7 days significantly enhanced platelet aggregation, whereas, addition of dry ginger (5.0 g) with fatty meal significantly inhibited platelet aggregation induced by ADP and epinephrine (Indian J Med. Res. 1993, 98, 240).

 

·    Ginger oleoresin when administered orally significantly lowered serum and hepatic cholesterol and increased faecal cholesterol excretion (Gujral, S. et.al. , Nutr. Rep. Int., 17(2), 183, 1978).

 

·    Crude rhizome extract showed potent positive inotropic effect on guinea pig isolated left atria (J. Pharm. Sci. 1982,71,1174; Suekawa, Mamoru, Nippon Yakurigaku Zasshi, 88(5), 339, (Japanese) 1986; Chem. Abstr 1987, 106, 12347p; J. Pharmacobio-Dyn. 1986, 9(10), 842))

 

·    Zerumbone (10. 0 g/ml) completely inhibited growth of mouse L -12 10 leukaemia cells (Fujimoto, Yasuo,  (Institute of Physical and Chemical Research), Jpn. Kokai Tokkyo Koho JP 01221344; Chem. Abstr 1990, 112, 104845 b); gingerenone A exhibited moderate anticoccidium activity in vitro in cultured kidney cells of chicken and strong antifungal effect against Pyricularia oryzae (Phytochemistry 1990, 29, 797); 6-gingesulphonic acid exhibited antiulcer activity which was stronger than that of (6)-gingerol and (6)-shogaol (Chem. Pharm. Bull. 1992, 40, 2239; ibid. 1994, 42, 1226); b-sesquiphellandrene showed acitivity against rhinovirus in vitro with IC5O 0.44 OM  (J. Nat. Prod. 1994, 57, 658).

 

·    Inhibitory effects of several edible plant extracts against 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA (HMG-CoA) reductase, a rate-limiting enzyme in the biosynthesis of cholesterol, were screened. Inhibition rates of 10-15% were observed with hot water extracts of Allium fistulosum, Allium sativum and Cucurbita maxima. Methanol extracts of Aster scaber, Allium sativum, Zingiber officinale, Oenanthe javanica and Angelica keiskei effectively reduced the enzyme activity with inhibition rates of 29-51%. The methanol extract of Angelica keiskei was fractionated sequentially with chloroform, ethyl acetate and n-butanol. Of the fractions, the ethyl acetate fraction showed the highest inhibition against the enzyme. Luteolin-7-O-b-D-glucoside and hyperoside isolated from the ethyl acetate fraction of Angelica keiskei inhibited the enzyme activity by 65.5% and 14.8%, respectively, at the concentration of 30mM. (Park, Jeong-Ro, Han'guk Sikp'um Yongyang Kwahak Hoechi, 26(2), 236(Korean) 1997; Chem. Abstr. 27, 92703).

 

·    In order to investigate the possible use of spices as natural preservatives, antimicrobial activities of garlic and ginger were examined. Distilled components of garlic and ginger were also analyzed. Garlic extracts suppressed growth of Gram-negative bacteria more effectively than they inhibited Gram-positive bacteria. Extracts of garlic suppressed growth of yeasts. The ether extract of garlic was especially active. The ether extract of ginger was also effective for growth inhibition of bacteria. Distilled components of garlic and ginger were extracted by using a simultaneous steam distillation and extraction apparatus. The concentrations were analyzed with GC/MSD and Kovat's retention index and 13 and 21 components, respectively, were identified. Distilled components of garlic and ginger included sulfur compounds and hydrocarbons, respectively. Di-2-Propenyl disulfide, Me 2-propenyl disulfide, 2-vinyl-4H-1,3-dithiirane and 3,3'-thiobis-1-propene were major aroma compounds in garlic. a-Zingiberene, b-phellandrene, a-sesquiphellandrene and camphene were major compounds in ginger. (Park, Jeong-Ro et.al., Han'guk Sikp'um Yongyang Kwahak Hoechi, 26(2), 236, (Korean) 1997,  Chem. Abstr. 127:92703 )

 

·    Antioxidative action of Zingiber officinalis petroleum extracts with the 4 oxygen free radicals system was studied. The antioxidative action on erythrocyte with O2 of extracts was studied by spectrophotometry. The protective action on the treatment of erythrocyte membranes with H2O2 and the cell membrane fluidity with fluorescence polarization were observed. The rate of inhibition and scavenging of hydroxyl generation and the inhibition of lipid peroxidation of Zingiber extracts were determined using fluorescence. The Zingiber extracts showed significant antioxidative action on erythrocyte with O2, had protective action on erythrocyte membranes and caused an increase in fluidity. The extracts possessed great scavenging effect on hydroxyl, the rate of inhibition and scavenging were 92.42 and 97.39%, respectively at 2.09 g L-1, and the lipid peroxidation of mouse liver mitochondria was markedly inhibited by extracts at 4.0 g L-1. The rate of inhibition was 86.81%. The data suggest that the extract of Zingiber has significant inhibition and scavenging effect on 4 oxygen free radicals, and can be used as an antioxidant. (Zhongguo Yaoxue Zazhi (Beijing), 32(6), 343, 1997; Chem. Abstr. 128:176141)

 

· Two different combinations of Z. officinale and G. biloba extracts (ratio of components: 1:1 or 1:2.5) were compared with the standard ratio adjusted for ZC (2.5:1). Each combination was administered intragastrically (IG) in five doses (0.01 to 10 mg/kg) before the rats were tested on the EPM. Zingicomb (ZC) at 1 mg/kg elevated the time spent on the open arms, scanning of the open arms and excursions into the ends of the open arms, whereas the two other combinations (1:1 and 1:2.5) did not influence rats' behavior on the EPM in the entire dose range tested. With regard to the memory-disrupting effects of anxiolytics, particularly of diazepam (DZP), a second experiment was performed to compare the effects of ZC (0.5, 1, 10 mg/kg, IG) and DZP (1 or 5 mg/kg, IP) on the performance of rats in two different learning tasks. Rats were treated with DZP or ZC prior to the learning trial of a one-trial step-through inhibitory avoidance task. Retention testing 24 h later showed impaired retention for rats injected with DZP at 5 mg/kg but not for animals that had received ZC prior to training. In a further experiment, rats were treated once daily with DZP or ZC prior to the training trials in a water maze. Injections of DZP at 5 mg/kg impaired place and cue learning, whereas the treatment with ZC did not influence the navigation performance in the maze. The present results indicate that the anxiolytic-like effects of ZC are specific in that only the mixture ratio of Z. officinale and G. biloba adjusted for the phytopharmacon was active in the EPM. Furthermore, ZC did not interfere negatively with the performance on an inhibitory avoidance and a water maze task, as opposed to DZP. This finding is interesting with regard to other studies that have revealed a similar dissociation between anxiolytic and memory-disrupting effects for chemically defined 5-HT antagonists, especially for those acting at 5-HT3 receptors. (Hasenohrl, R. U. et. al., Pharmacol., Biochem. Behav., 59(2), 527, 1998)

 

· Severe arthritis was induced in male Sprague-Dawley rats in the right knee and in the right paw by injecting 0.05 mL of a fine suspension of dead Mycobacterium tubercule bacilli in liquid paraffin (5 mg/mL). Eugenol (33 mg/kg) and ginger oil (33 mg/kg) given prophylactically via oral route for 26 days caused significant suppression of both paw and joint swelling. Plasma kallikrein levels in the synovial tissue increased (P < 0.01) significantly in non treated arthritic control rats and reduced to the normal levels in treated rat. This study demonstrates that eugenol and ginger oil have potent anti-inflammatory properties. Furthermore, the anti-inflammatory effects of these agents may be related to reduction in kallikrein levels. (Sharma, J. N. et.al., Asia Pac. J. Pharmacol., 12(1 & 2), 9, 1997)

 

· The crude extracts of fresh rhizomes of Zingiber officinale (ginger), dried rhizomes of Curcuma longa (turmeric) and dry fruits of Piper nigrum (black pepper), showed potent inhibitory activity against prostaglandin-biosynthesizing enzyme (cyclo-oxygenase, PG synthetase) in an in vitro bioassay test. The extracts were fractionated by monitoring the activity to yield [10]-gingerol (1); [6]-gingerol (2) from ginger; 1,7-bis(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl) 1,6-heptadiene-3,5-dione(curcumin)(3); p-hydroxycinnamoylferuloyl -methane -1,6-heptadiene-3,5-dione (4) from turmeric; and piperine (5) from black pepper. Compounds 1-5 were characterized on the basis of their IR, NMR spectroscopic data. The cyclo-oxygenase inhibitory activity of these compounds 1-5 was determined by an in vitro assay method in horse blood. Flunixin meglumine was used as a standard for comparing the cyclo-oxygenease inhibitory activity. RIA of thromboxane B2 (TxB2) was used to assess the concentration of thromboxane A2 (TxA2) in serum. (Venkateshwarlu, V., Indian Drugs, 34(8), 427, 1997 ).

 

· A review containing 16 references on the status of studying natural antioxidant in ginger with emphasis on the separation and identification of antioxidants, and its application in food and medicine industry has been published (Huang, Xuesong , Zhongguo Tiaoweipin, 8, 2(Chinese) , 1997; Chem. Abstr. 128:191700).

 

· A review containing 90 references has been published. A substantial body of data from both epidemiological and laboratory studies supports the idea that dietary factors have a profound impact on the prevention as well as etiology of many cancers in humans. Recently, considerable attention has been focused on the identification of dietary phytochemicals that possess ability to block or reverse the processes of carcinogenesis and mutagenesis. Capsaicin (trans-8-methyl-N-vanillyl-6-nonenamide), a principal pungent ingredient of red pepper (Capsicum annum L., Solanaceae), has been extensively investigated with regard to its possible modulation of mutagenic and carcinogenic processes, but results in the literature are conflicting. While some of previous studies revealed the possible tumorigenicity and mutagenicity of capsaicin, recent investigations suggest its potential as an important dietary chemopreventer. Capsaicin also antagonized the skin tumor promotion as well as ear edema induced by 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA). Gingerol, a major pungent principle found in ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe, Zingiberaceae) and structurally related vanillyl ketones also attenuated TPA-induced tumor promotion and inflammation in mice. Taken together, these results suggest that vanilloids present in hot red pepper and ginger retain potential cancer chemopreventive activities. (Surh, Young-Joon ,Cancer Nutr., 193,1998)

 

· Diseases caused by Mycobacterium avium and Mycobacterium tuberculosis have reached pandemic proportions with some strains being resistant to existing chemotherapies. Complex therapies requiring four to six drugs are sometimes required to prevent the emergence of resistant strains. There is a need for the discovery of new drugs or compounds that are potential drug templates that can be used to treat diseases caused by these bacteria. The results reveal the isolation of 6-, 8-, and 10-gingerols from fresh ginger rhizome and the identification of 10-gingerol as the most active inhibitor of M. avium and M. tuberculosis in vitro. The gingerols were isolated by fractionation of a crude methylene chloride extract of fresh ginger rhizome by normal phase HPLC. Identification was based on mass spectral data. The identification of 10-gingerol was confirmed by synthesis. (Hiserodt, R. D, J. Agric. Food Chem., 46, 7, 2504, 1998)

 

·    A review containing 97 references has been published. There has been a substantial body of data, supporting the idea that dietary factors have a profound impact on prevention as well as etiololgy of human cancer. Capsaicin has been tested by many investigators for its effects on experimental carcinogenesis and mutagenesis. Data in the literature indicate that capsaicin has dual effects on carcinogenic and mutagenic processes. At present, there is no solid evidence that hot red and chili peppers or their principal pungent ingredient capsaicin are carcinogenic in humans although results of early investigations with experimental animals exhibit the moderate tumorigenicity of this compound. In contrast, recent studies reveal substantial antigenotoxic and anticarcinogenic effects of capsaicin, suggesting this compound as another important dietary phytochemical with a potential chemopreventive activity. Some pungent constituents present in ginger and other Zingiberaceous plants have potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects, and some of them exhibit anti-tumor promotional activity in experimental carcinogenesis. (Surh, Young-Joon, Mutat. Res.,402(1, 2), 259,1998)

 

· A wide array of phytochemicals have been shown to possess potential cancer chemopreventive properties. Ginger contains pungent phenolic substances with pronounced antioxidative and antiinflammatory activities. In the present study, we have determined the antitumor promotional activity of [6]-gingerol, a major pungent principle of ginger, using a two-stage mouse skin carcinogenesis model. Topical application of [6]-gingerol onto shaven backs of female ICR mice prior to each topical dose of 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) significantly inhibited 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene-induced skin papillomagenesis. The compound also suppressed TPA-induced epidermal ornithine decarboxylase activity and inflammation. (Cancer Lett. ,Shannon, Irel, 129(2), 139,1998)

 

·    Inhibitory effects of [6]-gingerol, a major pungent principle of ginger, on phorbol ester-induced inflammation, epidermal ornithine decarboxylase activity and skin tumor promotion in ICR mice are reported (Park, Kwang-Kyun, Cancer. Lett. (Shannon, Irel.), 131(2), 231, 1998 )

 

·    In order to investigate the mutagenicity of 6- paradol, Ames Salmonella/ microsome plate assay was carried out with Salmonella typhimurium strains, TA 98, TA 100, TA 1535 and TA 1538. 6-Paradol was nonmutagenic in Salmonella with and without rat liver microsomal activation. The rec assay with Bacillus subtilis strains H 17 rec+ and M 45 rec- was carried out to test 6-paradol and other compounds (1-3  S. typhimurium mg/disk) for DNA damaging activity. 6-Paradol was also nonmutagenic in DNA damaging activity. The relative size of the inhibition zone for 6-paradol was smaller than that of capsaicin. We have also determined the patholological effects of this compound on the various tissues of rats after administering (i.p.) with increasing doses of 4, 8, 12, 16 mg/kg at 2 h intervals and found no significant changes in terms of histology (Mutagens Carcinog., 18(1), 32 (Korean) 1998)

 

·    Ginger possesses anti-oxidant properties and may be added to edible oils and fats to protect them against oxidative rancidity. The phenolic constituents of the alcohol-soluble fraction of the spice are responsible for the anti-oxidant effect. Shogaol and zingerone are     reported to be as potent as allyl sulphide or allyl disulphide in preventing lipid oxidation (Sethi & Aggarwal, J. Sci. industr. Res., 1952, 11B, 468; Sethi & Aggarwal, ibid.,1957, 16A, 181; Food Sci. & Technol. Abstr., 1971, 3, 315).

 

·    Alcoholic extracts of the spice have been found to stimulate the vasomotor and respiratory centres of  anaesthetized cats; they also stimulate the heart. Ginger is reported to contain an anti-histaminic factor. It is included among anti- depressants and it forms an ingredient of some anti-narcotic preparations. In veterinary practice, ginger is used as a stimulant and carminative in atomic indigestion of horses and cattle (Chopra, 1958, 255; I.P.C., 256; Nadkarni, I, 1309; Chem. Abstr., 1964, 61, 6047; 1969, 71, 33425; 1968, 68, 62681; Dash & Bedi, ISI Bull., 1967, 19, 393; Merck Index, 489).

 

·    The rhizome has been found to be a new source of proteolytic enzyme. In an experiment undertaken to investigate the proteolytic activity, rhizomes with light-blue ring, visible on cross-sectional slices, showed more protease activity than those without the blue ring. About 60 g. typical rhizome with the blue ring yielded 1.356 g. dried    preparation of enzyme (acetone precipitate) which it is 2.26 percent of the fresh rhizome. As a comparison, may be mentioned that c. 8,000 kg. of fruit of papaya are required to produce c. 1 kg. of commercial papain, which is only 0.013% of the papaya fruit. The data indicated that there were at least two enzymes (or iso-enzymes) present in the preparation (Thomson & Allen, J. Fd. Sci., 1973, 38, 652).

 

·    Addition of aqueous extract of rhizome inhibited aflatoxin synthesis by 67 and 68% in SMKY - liquid medium and maize composite respectively. The extract also exhibited nematicidal activity against the burrowing nematode - Radopholus similis. Ethanolic extract of rhizome showed low antifungal activity against Aspergillus niger, A.flavus and Penicillium citrinum. The leaf extract is found to be toxic to ringworm causing fungi, Epidermophyton floccosum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Microsporum gypseum (Ranjan et al, Geobios, 1992, 19, 39; Gnanapragasm & Prematunge, Sri Lanka J Tea Sci, 1991, 59, 82; Rizki et al, Pakist J Sci Indutr Res, 1989, 32, 608; Mishra et al, Indian Drugs, 1991, 28, 300).

 

·    Ginger oil induced the detoxifying enzyme system - glutathione S-transferase, active against chemical carcinogens, in small intestine mucosa and liver of female A/J mice. The active principles [6]-Shogaol (at 2.5 mg/kg), and [6]-[8]-and [10]-gingeral (at 5 mg/kg) are  found to enhance gastro-intestinal motility in mice. Zingerone is reported to scavange superoxide anions in xanthin-xanthin oxidase systems (Lam & Zheng, J Agric Fd Chem, 1991, 39, 660; Yamahara et al, Chem Pharm Bull, 1990, 38, 430; Krishnakantha & Lokesh, Indian J Biochem Biophys, 1993, 30, 133).

 

·    Ginger oil can be utilized as a seed protectant to control post-harvest spoilage, as it completely inhibited the growth of a number of storage fungi and it is sensitive to many others including ringworm causing fungi. Gingerone A exhibited moderate growth inhibition activity against some plant pathogenic fungi. Repellent property of the oil is also demonstrated against cockroaches and the pea weevil-Bruchus pisorum (Mishra, Indian Perfum, 1990, 34, 266; Kaur & Sinha, J Res Ayur Siddha, 1991, 12, 200; Endo et al,  Phytochemistry, 1990, 29, 797; Garg & Jain, J Econ Bot Phytochem,1991, 2, 25).

 

      Antifungal activities (in vitro) of fresh juice and aqueous extracts of turmeric and ginger were tested against the fungi Aspergillus niger and Penicillium degitatum. Both the juices and aqueous extracts were used without further concentration. A positive result was observed with all the tested extracts in arresting the growth of these fungi. Juices showed a better antifungal activity compared to aqueous extracts. (Kapoor, A., Journal of Phytological Research, 10(1-2), 59, 1997).

 

      The effects of ethanolic extract of ginger (Zingiber officinale) (200 mg/kg, p.o.) were studied in cholesterol fed rabbits. The marked rise in serum and tissue cholesterol, serum triglycerides, serum lipoproteins and phospholipids that followed 10 weeks of cholesterol feeding, was significantly reduced by the ethanolic ginger extract and results were compared with gemfibrozil, a standard orally effective  hypolipidaemic drug. The severity of aortic atherosclerosis, as judged by gross granding, was more marked in the hypercholesterolemic group, while animals receiving ginger extract along with cholesterol showed a lower degree of atherosclerosis. The results indicate that ginger is definitely an antihyperlipidaemic agent. (Bhandari, U.; Journal of Ethnopharmacology,  61(2), 167, 1998)

 

      All tested Gram-positive bacteria and yeasts were inhibited by the Z.officinale essential oil. The maximal inhibition in Gram-positive bacteria was observed in two strains of Staphylococcus aitreus, while Enterococcus faecalis was poorly inhibited. The essential oil was strongly active against yeasts, particularly Candida albicans strains and C..kmsei. Negligible activity was observed against Gram-negative bacteria. (Battinelli, L. et.al.;  Fitoterapia, 69(Suppl.5), 71, 1998)

 

      Diseases caused by (M.avium) and (M. tuberculosis) have reached pandemic proportions with some strains being resistant to existing chemotherapies. The paper describes the isolation of 6-, 8-, and 10-gingerol from fresh ginger rhizome and the identification of 10-gingerol as the most active inhibitor of M . avium and M. tuberculosis in vitro. The gingerols were isolated by fractionation of a crude methylene chloride extract of fresh ginger rhizome by normal phase HPLC. Identification was based on mass spectral data. The identification of 10-gingerol was confirmed by synthesis. (Hiserodt, R.D; Journal of Agricultural  and Food Chemistry, 46(7);  2504)

 

      Extracts from Acorus calamus, Zingiber officinale, Cinnamomum zeylanicwn, Moringa oleifera, Ocimum sanctum and Piper betel exhibited activity against  Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas  aeruginosa and Klebsiella sp. E.coli exhibited higher resistance to antibiotics and plant extracts. Ocimum sanctum was most effective against four micoorganisms . (Rajendhran, J. et.al. Geobios, 25(4), 280, 1998)

 

·    The inhibitory effects of the traditional herbal medicine Daisaiko-to (Da-Chai-Hu-Tang) consisting of  Bupleurum falcatum, Pinellia ternata, Scutellaria baucalensis, Paeonia lactiflora, Zingiber officinale, Citrus  aurantium and Rheum palmatum on the progression of the  atherosclerotic lesions are discussed. The progression of  atherosclerotic lesions did not happen in the Dai-saiko-to-  treated group between week 12 (26 percent) and 26 (27.4  percent). Antioxidative effects on low-density lipoprotein  (LDL) were seen in the Dai-saiko-to-treated group in weeks  16 and 18 Dai-saiko-to did not improve the hyper-  cholesterolemia in the KHC rabbits. Inhibitory effects of Dai-saiko-to on the development of atheromatous plaque formation in spontaneous FH model rabbits has been suggested. (Lizuka, A. et.al.; Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 63(3), 209, 1998)

 

      Effect of various extracts of ginger was investigated against Cisplatin induced pica in rats and their effect was compared with ondansetron, a 5-HT, receptor antagonist.  Cisplatin when administered at the doses of 2.5, 5 and 10 mg/kg, i.p. produced dose dependant increase in 24 hr kaolin  intake in rats. The kaloin intake was increased to 0.62+- 0.18,1.21 +-0.41 and 3.27+-0.22 g respectively, as compared to 0.34+-0.16 g in controls. Ginger preparations like ginger acetone extract, ginger ethanolic extract and ginger juice when administered orally significantly reversed the pica behaviour induced by Cisplatin. Ondansetron at 3 mg/kg, p.o. also significantly inhibited the pica behaviour. The prevention of Cisplatin induced pica behviour in rats further confirm that ginger can be useful for gastrointestinal side effects caused by anticancer agents. NSL, New Delhi. (Sharma, S.S. et.al. ; Indian Journal  of Pharmacology, 31 (1), 74, 1999)

 

      Antimicrobial activity of total plant extract obtained  from Ocimum sanctum, Adhatoda vasica, Emblica officinalis, Saussurea lappa, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Zingiber  offic'maies, Piper longum, Piper nigrum, Onosma bracteatum, Tinospora cordifolia, Fagonia cretica and Terminalia chebula as well as of Asava and Aarishta have been discussed. (Farooq, S.; and  Pathak, O.K. , Journal of Non-Timber Forest Products, 5(1 &2),  79, 1998)

 

      Leishmania mexicana strain 227 and L. infantum chagasi strain 13 promastigotes, and the mammalian cell lines HeLa and CeM-T4, were tested, using a microplate assay, for susceptibility to aqueous and ethanol extracts of the following plants: nutmeg (Myristica ssp.), ginger (Zingiber qfficinale), goldenseal root (Hydrastis canadensis), garlic (Allium sativum), elephant garlic (Allium scorodoprasum), onion (Allium cepa) and licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabrd). Only G.glabra and A.scorodoprasum exhibited in vitro potential as antileishmanial agents. L. chagasi was more sensitive to both types of garlic than Lmexicana. (McClure, C.D. and Nolan, L.L. Acta Horticulturae, 426, 91, 1996).

 

·    Certain foodbome bacterial pathogens (Salmonella typhimurium, Shigella dysenteriae, Clostridium perfrin-gens, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus) were tested for their sensitivity to allicin, a major component of garlic extracts. All bacteria were inhibited by allicin in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, protozoal parasites (Leishmania mexicana and L. infantum chagasi) and mammalian cell lines (HeLa and CEM T4 cells), whose sensitivities to natural herbs were undertermined, were tested for susceptibility to aqueous and ethanolic plant extracts of several species including nutmeg (Myristica spp.), ginger (Zingiber officinale), goldenseal root (Hydrastis canadensis), garlic (Allium sattvum), ele­phant garlic (Allium scorodoprasum), onion (Allium cepd) and licorice (Glycyrrhizaglabrd). L. chagasi was more senstive to both types of garlic than L. mexicana (IC50 values of 70 and 32 microg/ml for A. sativum and A. scorodo-prasum, respectively). Extracts from raw onion did not inhibit growth of any of the cell lines. G.glabra extracts inhibited leishmanial parasites but were not toxic to He-La cells. All the other extracts showed varying inhibitory ac­tivities.

 

·    Basil or tulsi (Ocimum sanctum), neem (Azadirachta lindica), garlic or lahson (Allium sativuni) and ginger or adrak (Zingiber officinale) were assessed for their in vitro potential to inhibit polio virus type-3 replication using JVERO cells. A non-toxic range of 22.5 to 0.175 mg/ml I concentration of ethanolic extract of basil leaves inhibited I polio virus type-3 replication as compared to a non toxic 1 effective concentrations of 225 to 1.75 mg/ml of aqueous extract. Percentage inhibition of polio virus type-3 by ethanolic and aqueous extracts of basil as determined by I virus inhibition assay was found to be 99.90 percent and I 99.68 percent, respectively. Aqueous extract of neem leaves and garlic bulb as well as ethanolic extract of ginger rhizome did not exhibit significant percentage inhibition of polio virus type-3. (Parida, MM. Et.al.; Indian Journal of Virology, 13(2), 101, 1997).

 

      The stability of the polyherbal capsule (containing Glycyrrhiza glabra, Solanum xanthocarpum, Albizia leb-beck, Alpinia galanga, Sida cordifolia, Hedychium spicatum, Piper longum, Saussurea lappa, Zingiber officinale and Ocimum sanctum) by exposing it to elevated conditions of temperature i.e. 45 degree C and 40 degree C with 75 percent relative humidity was studied. The samples periodically analysed upto six months for their organoleptic characteristics, assay of few plant ingredients and the HPTLC finger printing and their peak area analysis, were found to be stable/consistent during the period of study i.e. the change in quantifiable components was within 90 per­cent of the initial amount, indicating the stability of product for more than three years at room temperature. (Chauhan, S.K. and Agrawal, S. Indian Drugs, 36(6), 368, 1999).

 

      The study includes the anti-ulcerogenic effects of three constituents of DM viz. Piper /ongMm(Pippali), Zingiber officianale(STingvera) and Ferula asafoet-iWa(Hingu) on rat gastric ulcers and gastrict mucosal offensive and defensive factors. The test drugs showed significant anti-ulcer activity in all the models of gastric ulcers studied. In gastric secretion and mucosal study, they either showed increase in acid or pepsin secretion and sig­nificant reduction in cell shedding. However, they caused a significant increase in mucin secretion and mucosal glyco-protein, indicating the anti-ulcer effect of DM. (Rao, C.R. et.al.; Proceedings of International Congress on "Ayurveda-2000", Chennai, TN, India, 197, 2000 ).

 

·    The atomic ratios obtained in {ar}-curcumene, alpha-zingiberene, beta-bisabolene obtained from the essential oil of rhizomes of Zingiber officinale revealed that (2E,6E)-iso-mer of FPP is isomerised to (2Z,6E)-isomer without loss of epimeric hydrogen i.e without a redox process; (2Z,6E)-FPP is cyclised to bisabolyl cation which is the penultimate precursor of alpha-zingiberene, {ar}-curcumene and beta-bisabolene; and two 1,2-hydrogen shifts take place during the formation of alpha-zingiberene whereas one 1,2 shift was observed during the formation of (ar}-curcumene. (Kum Kum Rani ; Fitoterapia,  70(6), 568, 1999).

 

·    Ginger (Zingiber officinale; 1 percent w/w) signifi­cantly lowered lipid peroxidation by maintaining the activities of the antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase in rats. The blood glu-tathione content was significantly increased in ginger fed rats. Similar effects were also observed after natural antioxi­dant ascorbic acid (100 mg/kg, body wt) treatment. The results indicate that ginger is comparatively as effective as ascorbic acid as an antioxidant. (Ahmed, R.S. et.al.; Indian Journal of Experimental Biology,  38(6), 604, 2000).

 

·    An Ayurvedic toothpaste prepared from Zingiber oficinale, Terminalia chebula, Acacia catechu, Piper nigrum,  Syzygiutn arpmaticum, Cinnamomum zeylanicum camphor  etc. has been investigated in 50 patients suffering from  dental diseases. The paste was highly effective in controling the diseases. (Pandya, N. et.al.; Sachitra  Ayurved,  47(12), 907, 1995).

 

·    Haritakyadi vati (HV) composed of Terminalia chebula, Acorns calamus, Pluchea, lanceolate/, Piper nigrum,  Zingiber qfficinale, Hedychium spicatum, Inula racemosa,  and Lasunayadi guggal (LG) containing Allium sativum, Inula racemosa and oleoresin of Commiphora mukul were  tried in three groups of angina patients. Group A patients  were treated with HV (two tablets/dose thrice daily) for six  week. Group B werfe given LG (two tablets/dose, thrice  daily) for six week and group C treated with both the drugs  (2 tablets each, trite daily) for six weeks. On the basis of  observations, maximum improvement was noticed in pa-  tients of group C receiving both the drugs. Minimum  improvement was in patietit*of group A treated with HV  alone. (Awasthi, A.K. Sachitra Ayurved, 49(2),117, 1996).

 

·    Traditional uses, chemical constituents and antiemetic, antinauseatic, antiulcer, antiplatelet,  antiinflammatory, antipyretic, cardiovascular, antiinfective,  antioxidant and other activities of ginger (Zinginer qffici nale) have been reviewed. (Bone, K. British Journal of Phytotherapy,  4(3), 110,1997).

·    Effect of ginger on serum cholesterol levels. (Girij, J., et.al; Ind, Jour. Nutr. Diet. 21(2), 433, 1984)

 

·    Glycemic and cholesterolemic role of ginger and til. (Varanasi. Singhal, P.C. and Joshi, L.D., J. Sci. Res. Plant. Med. 4(3), 32, 1983)